Four federal agencies regulate the export of civil nuclear goods and services: Department of State, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety, and Security; the National Nuclear Security Administration; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and the Bureau of Industry and Security.
Department of State, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security
The Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security (NESS) at the Department of State has the lead role in all aspects of peaceful nuclear cooperation. The role of NESS is to develop U.S. policy related to peaceful nuclear cooperation policy, nuclear safety, nuclear export controls, and the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, in furtherance of U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals. NESS also concentrates on technical aspects of nuclear technology and the dangers of proliferation, and negotiates 123 Agreements with foreign governments.
National Nuclear Security Administration (Department of Energy)
The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) reviews and administrates the 810 Authorization process. Companies interested in bidding on foreign tenders for civil nuclear projects or selling business proprietary civil nuclear information abroad must have an 810 Authorization from NNSA. The destination country does not necessarily need to have a 123 Agreement with the American government, but a private U.S. company must have an 810 Authorization from the NNSA to discuss business proprietary information with a foreign entity.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for regulating the trade of civil nuclear components through the Part 110 Licensing process. Companies interested in exporting civil nuclear components must first obtain a 110 License from the NRC. For a 110 License to be issued, the destination country must have a 123 Agreement with the U.S. as a precondition.
Bureau of Industry and Security (Department of Commerce)
The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) controls the trade of multi-use items through the Export Administration Regulations. The BIS accepts export licenses for trade in multi-use items, as controlled by the EAR, through the SNAP-R system.