According to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, U.S. companies engaging in the export of civil nuclear technology, goods or services must obtain an export agreement or license. Depending on what the company is purveying to a foreign buyer, an 810 Agreement, 110 License, or Export Administration Regulation authorization may be required before export.
The Department of State negotiates 123 Agreements with foreign governments. The purpose of a 123 Agreement is to establish safeguards against the unauthorized or illegal sale, transfer, or use of civil nuclear equipment.
The Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), administrates 810 Authorizations. A company must obtain an 810 Authorizations to sell business proprietary information to a foreign buyer, or to bid on a foreign tender where the bid would require releasing business proprietary information.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrates the 110 License process. A 110 License is necessary to export civil nuclear technology or products such as reactors, pressure vessels, deuterium, nuclear-grade graphite, or other equipment or components. A 110 License can only be issued to a company exporting to a country with a pre-existing 123 Agreement.
Export Administration Regulations
The Bureau of Industry and Security administrates the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) that control dual-use products. If a company is exporting a multi-use item it must obtain authorization through the EAR process.